TIME LINE FOR THE ULSTER SCOTS AND A BACKCLOTH TO THE
EMIGRATION FROM SCOTLAND AND IRELAND 1600 -1840
1603 Irish revolt
suppressed by Mountjoy. Accession of James VI of Scotland
becomes James I of England and Ireland; pursues `Divine
Right` policies aiming to be supreme in both State and
Church throughout Britain. Fire and Sword of MacGregors;
transportation to Ireland for rebels, Border Reivers
banished to Ireland (or hanged)
1607 Hamilton and
Montgomery Settlements in Co Antrim and Co. Down. First
Orr`s in Ulster; James Orr & Janet McClement of Ballyblack,
1610 Plantation of
Ulster – mainly Scottish Presbyterian settlers -lasted
until ca 1630
enforced on the Church in Scotland.
1620 Pilgrim Fathers
1624 Richlieu First
Minister in France. English driven out of Spice Islands by
1625 James dies 27
March. Charles I follows same policies of supremacy, and
episcopacy in the Church but not as subtle as his father.
1628 Petition of
Right by Commons to Charles I. Duke of Buckingham
1629 War with France
over (1629) and Spain (1630).
Charles I starts his “Personal
Rule” by royal prerogative.
Wentworth, later Earl of Strafford, Lord Deputy of
Ireland, persecutes the Presbyterians. Archbishop William
Laud seeks changes that are near Catholic practices and
sails for America, put back by storms.
Liturgy imposed; Jenny Geddes throws her stool at Dean
Hannay in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. Revolution ,
sometimes called the Second Reformation, begins.
1638 The National
Covenant widely signed in Scotland
1639 First Bishops
War Charles I comes to terms with Scots.
1640 Second Bishops
War. Charles defeated by Scots. Long Parliament begins the
abolition of Royal Prerogatives
1641 Massacre of
Protestants in Irish Rebellion. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of
Stafford, impeached and executed. Grand Remonstrance of
the House of Commons to Charles I.
1642 Outbreak of
English Civil War
1643 Mazarin Chief
Minister in France. French beat Spanish at Rocroi. The
National League and Covenant secures services of Scots
army for the English Parliamentarians.
1644 Marston Moor,
decisive battle. North of England lost to Charles.
Tippenmuir: Montrose begins his victorious campaign
in Scotland (lasts until Sept 1645)
1645 New Model Army
crushed Royalist army at Naseby .Montrose finally loses at
Battle of Phillihaugh. Archbishop Laud executed.
1646 Charles I
surrenders to Scots.
1647 Charles I
handed over to Parliamentarians but seized by the Army.
Charles manages to flee to Carisbrooke Castle, on the Isle
of Wight. Makes the “Engagement” with Scottish nobles to
1648 Second Civil
War. New Model Army defeats Scots & Royalists. Colonel
Pride`s Purge of Parliament, remodels the
legislature in England. The army is clearly in charge.
1649 Charles I
executed. England governed as a Commonwealth. Cromwell in
Ireland. Scots declare Charles II as king.
1651 Battle of
Worcester. Cromwell now controls all Britain. Charles II
1652 Anglo Dutch War
begins (to 1654)
dissolves Rump. Becomes Lord Protector. Proposals to
transport Presbyterians from Antrim to Kilkenny and
Tipperary but not pursued.
1658 Death of
Cromwell 3 September.
1659 Peace of
Pyrenees France now greatest power in Western Europe
1660 Restoration of
the Monarchy. Charles II returns to England. Takes his
revenge on the Presbyterians in Scotland and the non
conformists in England. Declared in Dublin 14 May 1660.
1661 Mazarin dies.
Louis XIV personal rule “Clarendon Code” Persecution of
Non Conformists in England; 60 ministers ejected in
1662 St Bartholomews
Day,24 August, ejection of about 2000
nonconformist ministers in England. Nearly 400 ministers ejected
in Scotland. Act of Settlement in Ireland 31 July
1662 settles ownership of land for Cromwell`s appointees.
Curates fill vacancies in Scottish churches. Twenty
Mile Act bans ejected ministers from living in or near
their old parish.
1664 Second Anglo
Dutch War (ends 1667) English take New York Court of High
Commission persecutes Presbyterians in Scotland. Star
Chamber does the same to English non conformists.
1665 Great Plague of
London, 70,000 dead. Act of Explanation in Ireland
makes Cromwellian land owners give up one third of lands.
1666 Great Fire of
London. Pentland Rising and battle of Rullion Green
1667 Dutch Fleet in
the River Medway (Kent). War of Devolution begins; first
of Louis XIV’s aggressions.
1669 Assertory Act
(supremacy of the King); First Indulgence in
Scotland, divides the Church.
1670 Secret Treaty
of Dover – Charles II and Louis XIV. Laws tighten on
non conformists; conventicles banned in Scotland.
1672 Third Anglo
Dutch War (ends 1674) William of Orange leads Dutch
against French invasion. Indulgences in England and (2nd)
1673 Test Act
deprives English Catholics and Non Conformists of public
1675 Swedes defeated
by Gt Elector at Fehrbellin. – rise of Prussia. Chain of
13 garrisons in south west Scotland to keep order. Letters
of Intercommuning issued against 100 ministers.
1677 Martial Law
declared in Scotland 11 December. William of Orange
marries Mary, elder daughter of Duke of York (James II).
1678 The `Bond`
against conventicles imposed with great resentment.
The Highland Host in Ayrshire
Jan/Feb. Titus Oates – “Popish Plot” pressure on Charles
1679 Persecution of
Scottish Covenanters in earnest. Habeus Corpus Act
introduced. Archbishop Sharp murdered in May; battles of
Drumclog and Bothwell Brig in June. Third Indulgence in
Scotland. Crown sinks off Orkney,211 Covenanters drowned.
1680 Declaration of
Sanquhar a declaration of war. Richard Cameron and
brother killed at Ayrsmoss.
Parliament; Charles II overcomes opponents and rules
without Parliament. Test Act enforces holders of
official posts to take the oath. Act of Succession makes
clear that Catholic brother James will succeed to the
1683 Rye House
Plot, to assassinate the King and his brother, fails.
continues in Scotland. James Renwick issues his
Admonitory Vindication; the government introduces
the Abjuration Oath and authorises execution by shooting
in the presence of two witnesses. The Killing Time
Charles II dies 6 February. Sedgemoor, Monmouth’s
rebellion crushed by James II. Earl of Argyll`s rebellion
fizzles out for lack of support; he is executed.
The Killing Time ends
in October. Revocation of
Edict of Nantes – Louis XIV persecutes French Protestants.
Richard Talbot created Earl of Tyrconnell
appointed commander Irish Army 5 June 1686.
Tyrconnell appointed Lord Deputy in Ireland; friction
1688 Seven Bishops
protest against James II policy of toleration. William of
Orange and Mary invited to take the
throne. Scotland joins in that invitation. William lands
in England – The Glorious Revolution is achieved. 5
November 1688 William of Orange with 14,000 troops lands
in Devon, 7 Dec. Gates of Derry closed by the Apprentice
Boys preventing the entry of the Earl of Antrim`s
regiment. 23 December 1688 James flees.
Hamilton defects to Tyrconnel. 3 February William & Mary
accept the Bill of Rights and the throne. 12 March James
lands at Kinsale, Co. Cork. 14 March 1689 Break of
Dromore, Protestants defeated.18 April Derry refuses to
submit to James II. Derry relieved after siege of 105
days; James II fails to subdue Irish Protestants.
Killecrankie – death of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee,
collapse of Highland Rising. 7 May – 18 May 1689 James
holds an Irish Parliament. England declares war on
France.18 June 1689 – proclamation about use of brass
money. 22 June the Restoration land settlement is repealed
by Irish Parliament.27 Juy 1689 Enniskillen volunteers
defeat James` army at Newtownbutler, Co. Fermanagh.
13 August 1689 Gen. Schomberg lands at Bangor, Co. Down.
1690 12 March 1690
French troops under Gen Lauzon land in Cork. 30 June 1690
Beachy Head – French victory over Anglo Dutch fleet. 1
July 1690 William III defeats James II at The Boyne. 4
July James flees to France from Kinsale. Settlement of the
Presbyterian Church in Scotland as the Church`by law
1691 3 October
1691Treaty of Limerick; surrender of James II supporters
on conditions which are not met. 22 Dec. Sarsfield and
12,000 troops sails for France.
1692 Massacre of
Glencoe – Governments ‘lesson’ to Highlanders.
1693 National Debt
1694 Bank of England
1707 Act of Union –
English and Scottish Parliaments united.
1710 – 20 Surge in
migrations from Ulster to American colonies.
1713 Peace of
Utrecht, advantageous peace with France.
1714 Death of Queen
Anne. George I to throne – Whig oligarchy rules
1715 Jacobite rising
defeated at Preston and Sherriffmuir.
1716 Septennial Act:
Parliament prolongs its life from three to seven years
1721 Robert Walpole
1727 First indemnity
Act for Non Conformists
1730 -40 Another increase in migration from
Ulster to American
begin at Oxford
1739 War of Jenkins
Ear between Spain and England
1742 Walpole falls
1743 George II
commands army and defeats French at Dettingen.
Rebellion under Prince Charles Edward; initial success
at Prestonpans and march to Derby
Jacobites destroyed by Cumberland
1750 – 75 More migration to American Colonies, main
points Belfast, Londonderry, Larne, Newry and Portpatrick.
1752 Britain adopts
new style calendar.
Revolution – alliance Austria and France. Seven Years War
begins.Minorca taken by French (Adml.Byng executed 1757).
Black Hole of Calcutta suffocation of British prisoners
1757 Pitt Secretary
of State great influence. Falls 1761.
1759 Year of
Victories – Quebec, Lagos, Minden, Quiberon Bay.
1760 Thurot ( French
) landing at Carrickfergus 21 Feb.
1763 Peace of Paris.
British Empire at its height.
1773 Boston Tea
1775 Lexington –
first battle of American War of Independence.
1776 Declaration of
Independence; Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations published.
surrender of British Army under Burgoyne.
surrender of British under Cornwallis to American and
1782 Battle of the
Saints; Rodney’s victory saves British West Indies.
1783 Treaty of
Versailles. American Independence recognised.
Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister. Burgoyne
returns to Ireland and is available with 20,000 troops if
required to deal with threatening demands of the
Volunteers. (November 1783)
Washington 1st President of USA. French Revolution starts.
Bastille stormed 14 July.
1791 Flight of Louis
XVI and Marie Antoinette to Varennes Formation of
Society of United Irishmen.
1792 France becomes
established in France. Napoleonic Wars commence in Spain,
1797 William Orr of
Farranshane, Co Antrim, hanged at Carrickfergus 14
1798 Vinegar Hill.
Rebellion in Ireland suppressed. Battle of Antrim 8/9 June
Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
under Robert Emmett in Ireland quickly overcome. Britain
again at war with France.
becomes Emperor. Spain declares war on Britain.
death of Nelson October 21. Death of Pitt 23 January.
Confederation of the Rhine; Napoleon reorganizes Germany,
overthrows Prussians at Jena. Declares Great Britain in a
state of blockade.
1807 Abolition of
Slave Trade in British Empire.
1808 Peninsular War,
Spain occupied by France.
1809 Corunna and
death of Sir John Moore 16 January.
retreat from Moscow
defeats French at Vitoria 21 June.
1814 Soult defeated
by Wellington at Toulouse 10 April. Napoleon abdicates
April 11 Louis XVIII king of France.
escapes from Elba. Waterloo June 18. Sent to St Helena 16
October (d 5.5.1821) probably poisoned by arsenic
compounds in wallpaper of his house.
1820 George III died
1824 Repeal of
Combination Acts which had forbidden Trades Unions.
Emancipation Act in Britain.
1830 George IV died
1831 First Reform
Bill introduced by Lord John Russell.
1832 Reform Bill
passed 7 June.
1834 Poor Law
Amendment Act tightened up relief in Britain.
Tolpuddle Martyrs victimised to discourage British working
Reform Act revises local government. Peel’s
`Tamworth Manifesto” defines aims of the
Conservative Party, first use of `socialism’
1836 Peoples Charter
states programme of Chartists. Great Trek of the Boers
from British rule in South Africa.Texas gains independence
1837 Queen Victoria
succeeds to the throne of Great Britain.