1603  Irish revolt
suppressed by Mountjoy. Accession of James VI  of Scotland 
becomes James I of England and Ireland; pursues `Divine
Right` policies aiming to be supreme in both State and
Church throughout Britain. Fire and Sword of MacGregors;
transportation to Ireland for rebels, Border Reivers
banished to Ireland (or hanged)

1607 Hamilton and
Montgomery Settlements in Co Antrim and Co. Down. First
Orr`s in Ulster; James Orr & Janet McClement of Ballyblack,
Co Down.

1610 Plantation of
Ulster – mainly Scottish Presbyterian settlers -lasted
until ca 1630

1612 Episcopacy
enforced on the Church in Scotland.

1620 Pilgrim Fathers
in America

1624 Richlieu First
Minister in France. English driven out of Spice Islands by

1625 James dies 27
March. Charles I follows same policies of supremacy, and
episcopacy in the Church but not as subtle as his father.

1628 Petition of
Right by Commons to Charles I. Duke of  Buckingham

1629 War with France
over (1629) and Spain (1630).
Charles I starts his “Personal
Rule” by royal prerogative.

1633 Thomas
Wentworth, later Earl of Strafford, Lord Deputy of
Ireland, persecutes the Presbyterians. Archbishop William
Laud seeks changes that are near Catholic practices and

1636 “Eaglewing”
sails for America, put back by storms.

1637  Laud`s
Liturgy imposed; Jenny Geddes throws her stool at Dean
Hannay in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. Revolution ,
sometimes called the Second Reformation, begins.

1638 The National
Covenant widely signed in Scotland

1639 First Bishops
War Charles I comes to terms with Scots.

1640 Second Bishops
War. Charles defeated by Scots. Long Parliament begins the
abolition of Royal Prerogatives

1641 Massacre of
Protestants in Irish Rebellion. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of
Stafford, impeached and executed. Grand Remonstrance of
the House of Commons to Charles I.

1642 Outbreak of
English Civil War

1643 Mazarin Chief
Minister in France. French beat Spanish at Rocroi. The
National League and Covenant secures services of Scots
army for the English Parliamentarians.

1644 Marston Moor,
decisive battle. North of England lost to Charles.
Tippenmuir:  Montrose begins his victorious campaign
in Scotland (lasts until Sept 1645)

1645 New Model Army
crushed Royalist army at Naseby .Montrose finally loses at
Battle of Phillihaugh. Archbishop Laud executed.

1646 Charles I
surrenders to Scots.

1647 Charles I
handed over to Parliamentarians but seized by the Army.
Charles manages to flee to Carisbrooke Castle, on the Isle
of Wight. Makes the “Engagement” with Scottish nobles to
attack England.

1648 Second Civil
War. New Model Army defeats Scots & Royalists. Colonel
Pride`s Purge of  Parliament, remodels the
legislature in England. The army is clearly in charge.

1649 Charles I
executed. England governed as a Commonwealth. Cromwell in
Ireland. Scots declare Charles II as king.

1651 Battle of
Worcester. Cromwell now controls all Britain. Charles II
in exile.

1652 Anglo Dutch War
begins (to 1654)

1653 Cromwell
dissolves Rump. Becomes Lord Protector. Proposals  to
transport Presbyterians from Antrim to Kilkenny and
Tipperary but not pursued.

1658 Death of
Cromwell 3 September.

1659 Peace of
Pyrenees France now greatest power in Western Europe

1660 Restoration of
the Monarchy. Charles II returns to England. Takes his
revenge on the Presbyterians in Scotland and the non
conformists in England. Declared in Dublin 14 May 1660.

1661 Mazarin dies.
Louis XIV personal rule “Clarendon Code”  Persecution of
Non Conformists in England; 60 ministers ejected in

1662 St Bartholomews
Day,24 August, ejection of about 2000  
nonconformist ministers in England. Nearly 400 ministers ejected
in Scotland. Act of Settlement in Ireland  31 July
1662 settles ownership of land for Cromwell`s appointees.

1663 Detested
Curates fill vacancies in Scottish churches. Twenty 
Mile Act bans ejected ministers from living in or near
their old parish.

1664 Second Anglo
Dutch War (ends 1667) English take New York Court of High
Commission persecutes Presbyterians in Scotland. Star
Chamber does the same to English non conformists.

1665 Great Plague of
London, 70,000 dead.  Act of Explanation in Ireland
makes Cromwellian land owners give up one third of lands.

1666 Great Fire of
London. Pentland Rising and battle of Rullion  Green
28 November.

1667 Dutch Fleet in
the River Medway (Kent). War of Devolution begins; first
of Louis XIV’s aggressions.

1669  Assertory Act
(supremacy of the King); First Indulgence in 
Scotland, divides the Church.

1670 Secret Treaty
of Dover – Charles II and Louis XIV. Laws tighten  on
non conformists; conventicles banned in Scotland.

1672 Third Anglo
Dutch War (ends 1674) William of Orange leads Dutch
against French invasion. Indulgences in England and (2nd)
in Scotland.

1673 Test Act
deprives English Catholics and Non Conformists of public

1675 Swedes defeated
by Gt Elector at Fehrbellin. – rise of Prussia. Chain of
13 garrisons in south west Scotland to keep order. Letters
of Intercommuning issued against 100 ministers.

1677  Martial Law
declared in Scotland 11 December. William of Orange
marries Mary, elder daughter of Duke of York (James II).

1678  The `Bond`
against conventicles imposed with great resentment.

The Highland Host in Ayrshire
Jan/Feb. Titus Oates – “Popish Plot” pressure on Charles

1679 Persecution of 
Scottish Covenanters in earnest. Habeus Corpus Act
introduced. Archbishop Sharp murdered in May; battles of
Drumclog and Bothwell Brig in June. Third Indulgence in
Scotland. Crown sinks off Orkney,211 Covenanters drowned.

1680  Declaration of
Sanquhar a declaration of war. Richard Cameron  and
brother killed at Ayrsmoss.

1681 Oxford
Parliament; Charles II overcomes opponents and rules
without Parliament. Test Act enforces holders of
official posts to take the oath. Act of Succession makes
clear that Catholic brother James will succeed to the

1683  Rye House
Plot, to assassinate the King and his brother, fails.

1684  Oppression
continues in Scotland. James Renwick issues his 
Admonitory Vindication; the government introduces
the Abjuration Oath and authorises execution by shooting
in the presence of two witnesses. The Killing Time

1685  King
Charles II dies 6 February. Sedgemoor, Monmouth’s
rebellion crushed by James II. Earl of Argyll`s rebellion
fizzles out for lack of support; he is executed.

The Killing Time ends
in October. 
     Revocation of
Edict of Nantes – Louis XIV persecutes French Protestants.
Richard Talbot created Earl of Tyrconnell

1686  Tyrconnell
appointed commander Irish Army 5 June 1686.

Tyrconnell appointed Lord Deputy in Ireland; friction

1688 Seven Bishops
protest against James II policy of toleration. William of
Orange  and Mary invited to take the
throne.  Scotland joins in that invitation. William lands
in England – The Glorious Revolution is achieved.   5
November 1688 William of Orange with 14,000 troops lands
in Devon, 7 Dec. Gates of Derry closed by the Apprentice
Boys preventing  the entry of the Earl of Antrim`s
regiment. 23 December 1688 James flees.

1689  Richard
Hamilton defects to Tyrconnel. 3 February William & Mary
accept the Bill of Rights and the throne. 12 March James
lands at Kinsale, Co. Cork.  14 March 1689 Break of
Dromore, Protestants defeated.18 April Derry refuses to
submit to James II. Derry relieved after siege of 105
days;  James II fails to subdue Irish Protestants.
Killecrankie – death of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee,
collapse of Highland Rising. 7 May – 18 May 1689 James
holds an Irish Parliament. England declares war on
France.18 June 1689 – proclamation about use of brass
money. 22 June the Restoration land settlement is repealed
by Irish Parliament.27 Juy 1689 Enniskillen volunteers
defeat James` army at Newtownbutler, Co. Fermanagh.  
13 August 1689 Gen. Schomberg lands at Bangor, Co. Down.

1690 12 March 1690
French troops under Gen Lauzon land in Cork. 30 June 1690
Beachy Head – French victory over Anglo Dutch fleet. 1
July 1690 William III defeats James II at The Boyne. 4
July James flees to France from Kinsale. Settlement of the
Presbyterian Church in Scotland as the Church`by law

1691 3 October
1691Treaty of Limerick; surrender of James II supporters
on conditions which are not met. 22 Dec. Sarsfield and
12,000 troops sails for France.

1692 Massacre of
Glencoe – Governments ‘lesson’ to Highlanders.

1693 National Debt

1694 Bank of England

1707 Act of Union –
English and Scottish Parliaments united.

1710 – 20 Surge in
migrations from Ulster to American colonies.

1713 Peace of
Utrecht, advantageous peace with France.

1714 Death of Queen
Anne. George I to throne – Whig oligarchy rules

1715 Jacobite rising
defeated at Preston and Sherriffmuir.

1716 Septennial Act:
Parliament prolongs its life from three to seven years

1721 Robert Walpole
Prime Minister

1727 First indemnity
Act for Non Conformists

1730 -40   Another increase in migration from
Ulster to American

1729 Methodists
begin at Oxford

1739 War of Jenkins
Ear between Spain and England

1742 Walpole falls

1743 George II
commands army and defeats French at Dettingen.

1745 Jacobite
Rebellion under Prince Charles Edward; initial success
at Prestonpans and march to Derby

1746 Culloden;
Jacobites destroyed by Cumberland

1750 – 75 More migration to American Colonies, main
points Belfast, Londonderry, Larne, Newry and Portpatrick.

1752 Britain adopts
new style calendar.

1756 Diplomatic
Revolution – alliance Austria and France. Seven Years War
begins.Minorca taken by French (Adml.Byng executed 1757).
Black Hole of Calcutta suffocation of British prisoners

1757 Pitt Secretary
of State great influence. Falls 1761.

1759 Year of
Victories – Quebec, Lagos, Minden, Quiberon Bay.

1760 Thurot ( French
) landing at Carrickfergus 21 Feb.

1763 Peace of Paris.
British Empire at its height.

1773 Boston Tea

1775 Lexington –
first battle of American War of Independence.

1776 Declaration of
Independence; Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations published.

1777 Saratoga;
surrender of British Army under Burgoyne.

1781 Yorktown;
surrender of British under Cornwallis to American and
French forces.

1782 Battle of the
Saints; Rodney’s victory saves British West Indies.

1783 Treaty of
Versailles. American Independence recognised.        
Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister.  Burgoyne
returns to Ireland and is available with 20,000 troops if
required to deal with threatening demands of the
Volunteers. (November 1783)

1787 American
Constitution drafted.

1789 George
Washington 1st President of USA. French Revolution starts.
Bastille stormed 14 July.

1791 Flight of Louis
XVI and Marie Antoinette to Varennes  Formation of
Society of United Irishmen.

1792 France becomes
a Republic.

1795 Directory
established in France. Napoleonic Wars commence in Spain,
Italy, Egypt

1797 William Orr of
Farranshane, Co Antrim, hanged at Carrickfergus 14

1798 Vinegar Hill.
Rebellion in Ireland suppressed. Battle of Antrim 8/9 June
decisive .

1800 Parliamentary
Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

1803 Insurrection
under Robert Emmett in Ireland quickly overcome. Britain
again at war with France.

1804 Bonaparte
becomes Emperor. Spain declares war on Britain.

1805 Trafalgar,
death of Nelson October 21. Death of Pitt 23 January. 
Confederation of the Rhine; Napoleon reorganizes Germany,
overthrows Prussians at Jena. Declares Great Britain in a
state of blockade.

1807 Abolition of
Slave Trade in British Empire.

1808 Peninsular War,
Spain occupied by France.

1809 Corunna and
death of Sir John Moore 16 January.

1812 Napoleons
retreat from Moscow

1813 Wellington
defeats French at Vitoria 21 June.

1814 Soult defeated
by Wellington at Toulouse 10 April. Napoleon abdicates
April 11 Louis XVIII king of France.

1815 Napoleon
escapes from Elba. Waterloo June 18. Sent to St Helena 16
October (d 5.5.1821) probably poisoned by arsenic
compounds in wallpaper of his house.

1820 George III died
29 January.

1824 Repeal of
Combination Acts which had forbidden Trades Unions.

1829 Catholic
Emancipation Act in Britain.

1830 George IV died
26 June.

1831 First Reform
Bill introduced by Lord John Russell.

1832 Reform Bill
passed 7 June.

1834 Poor Law
Amendment Act tightened up relief in Britain.        
Tolpuddle Martyrs victimised to discourage British working

1835 Municipal
Reform Act revises local government. Peel’s 
`Tamworth Manifesto”  defines aims of the
Conservative Party, first use of `socialism’

1836 Peoples Charter
states programme of Chartists. Great Trek of the Boers
from British rule in South Africa.Texas gains independence
from Mexico.

1837 Queen Victoria
succeeds to the throne of Great Britain.