Time Line:
Political events during  The Reformation in Europe  1493-1621.

This is only a snapshot of a hugely busy period
throughout Europe and beyond. If copying/printing off do so in landscape.

Holy Roman Empire Papacy
& Italian states.
France Spain Year Portugal Netherlands Austria



Maximilian of Austria (and
Netherlands) Emperor.
1493 Philip son of Emperor Maxmilian
Italy invaded by France 1494
League of the Empire. Milan and
Venice taken from France.
War with HRE in Italy. Treaty of Tordesillias Spain &
Portugal agree to divide unexplored world.
Hapsburg Spanish marriages 1496 Commercial treaty with England.
Creation of Aulic Council 1497
Charles VIII invades Italy,
seizes Florence

Savonarola executed.

1498 Take Lepanto from Venice
French invade take Milan. Louis XII invades Milan 1499
Charles V born Sicily reunited. 1500 Emanuel I 1495-1521

Vasco de Gama discovers India.
Brazil discovered.

Naples taken by France and Spain
who then fight one another.
Moors expelled from Spain. 1502 Peace with Venice
Julius II – 1513 1503
Treaty of Blois. Milan to
Treaty of Blois, receives Milan. 1504
1505 Viceroy in Ceylon
1506 Charles (V) succeeds father
Philip. Mother regent.
1507 Guelderland invades Holland and
War with HRE Ferdinand V in League with
France and Empire vs France
Joins League of Cambrai 1509
1510 Take Goa
Holy League against France 1511
Empire divided into Ten
Julius II annexes Piacenza and

5th Lateran Council

1512 Subdue Moldavia
Leo X – 1521 Alliance with Venice, defeated
by Swiss and driven from Italy. 1514.
1514 Rule Malaya Battle of Chaldiran Start of
wars with Persia.
Francis I King. 1515 Defeat Persians. Conquer 
Azerbaijan an Kurdistan
Luther`s Theses. at
Sale of Indulgences an issue. Charles I king. 1517 Subjugates Palestine and Syria
Charles V ( I of Spain)  Emperor Charles I becomes Emperor. 1519
Field of the Cloth of Gold 1520 Soliman the Magnificent height
of powers.
Diet of Worms Joins Emperor vs France. 1521
Clement VII. – 1534 1523
Peasants War – Germany 1524
Francis I captured at Pavia.
Holy League of Cognac. vs
Gives up claims in Italy 
and Flanders
Treaty of Madrid 1526 Battle of Mohacs,Turk victory
ends Hungarian independence.
John Zapolya King of Magyars.
Invaded. Rome sacked. 1527
Protest at Speyers. Treaty of Barcelona with Emperor. Siege of Vienna by Turks. 1529 Treaty of Gorichen between
Emporer and Egmont of Guelderland.
Besieges Vienna
Charles V crowned Emperor at
Peace of Cambrai, France 
relinquishes Italy to Spain.
1532 Marches vs Charles V,2nd
invasion Vienna
1533 Peace with Turkey Peace with Austria. Hungary divided with Ferdinand
I and Zapolya
Henry VIII breaks with Rome.

Jesuits founded.
Paul III – 151549.

Protestants night of the
placards. 24 October
1534 Takes Baghdad.
Conquers Tunis.; takes Milan. Alliance with Turks vs Charles
1535 Treaty with France Strong sea
 Savoy and Turin. taken. 1536
Genoa and Venice unite vs Turks. 1538 Barbarossa naval victory ar
Actium, Venice surrenders.
1540 Revolt of Ghent suppressed. Soliman supportd Hungary vs
ferdinand defeats him.
Zapoyla dies.son John Sigismund
Inquisition and censorship of
printing established in Rome.
1542 Discovery of japan. Alliance with France vs Charles
War with France in Netherlands 1543 France and Empire fighting.
Council of Trent 1545- 63 1545
League with Paul III. 1546
1547 Inquisition established. 5 year truce Turkish Hungary
formed.Sigismund Prince of transylvania.
1548 1548-53 war with Ferdinand.
Julius III – 1555 1550
Maurice of Saxony declares for
Treaty Chambord15 Jan. Supports
Lutheran princes.
Philip marries Mary Tudor 1554
Peace of Augsburg.allows
Lutheranism in Germany. Charles V abdicates favour or brother Ferdinand I
Induces Henry IV to secede from
Spanish alliance.
Split with Spain Philip receives sovereignty of
War in Italy vs Spain until

Paul IV – 1559.

War with Papacy in Italy. 1556
Alva at Rome Edict of Compiegne , July, vs
Spain dominant in Italy 1557
French retake Calais. 8 Jan. Mary QoS married Dauohin Francis
24 April
Peace of Cateau Cambresis;

City states divided up.

Pius IV – 1565

Peace with England and Spain Peace with England and France. 1559
Colloquy of Poissy. 1561
Peace of Prague with Turks First War of religion; on/off
till 1598
1562 Peace with Austria
Council Trent closed – Peace of Amboise 1563
Maxmilian Emperor Papal Bull breach with
1565 Invade Malta
Pius  V– 1572 Missions to
Far East and America
1566 Icinoclastic violence. Philip of
Spain exacts revenge on Flemish Protestants. Inquisition  established
Aegean Islands conquered.


Turkey invades. Soliman 
1567 Revolt quelled by Alva
Peace with Turkey. 1568 Military despotism under Alva. Peace with Austria
1569 Astrakhan attacked; loss.
Conflict with Russia.
Venice war with Turks Treaty of St Germaine 8 Aug. 1570 War with Venice.; take Cyprus
Holy League Spain Rome and
venice against Turks Naval victory  Lepanto.
Holy League against Turks 1571 War with Holy League. s.
Gregory XIII – 1585. St Bartholomew Day massacre 24
1572 `Sea beggars` take Flushing and

Revolt in north. Huegenot army from France
decimated 17 July..

Venice makes peace with Turks 1573 Alva recalled,

Siege of Haarlem

Austria takes Tunis. Peace with Venice. Keep Cyprus
French leave Piedmont Spain leaves Piedmont 1574 Siege of Leyden.
university founded.
Retakes Tunis, ravage Sicily.
Moldavia overrun.

Murad III

1575 Union of Holland and Zealand
under William of Orange.
Rudolph II Emperor Plague in Italy

Calvinist preachers expelled Palatinate.

Peace of beaulieu 6 May.

Catholic League formed by Guise

Sack Antwerp 1576 Antwerp sacked , Don John of
Austria governor. Pacification of Ghent..
Restriction on Austrian
Sixth Religious War., massacre
at La Charite sur Loire.

Peace of Bergerac.

1578 Attacks Morocco

Henry I king.

Spanish rule in south. Portugal attacks. Turko –
Persian War  to 1590.
Union of Utrecht. 1579 Walloon provinces reconciled to
Spain. North forms Republic. Union of Utrecht founds Dutch Republic.
Grand Vizier Sokolli dies;
decline of Turkish Empire begins.
Huguenots of Montauban
1580 Philip II of Spain invades, becomes King. Capitulates to Britain,and
Fance.in 1581.
1581 1581-1640 under control of
States General depose Philip.
Gregorian Calendar introduced. 1582
Ernst Bohemia Elector
Cologne.Prohibits Ptotestantism.
Alencon,youngest son of
Catherine de Medici died  10 June.
1584 Maurice of Nassau Stadtholder.
Holy League with Spain and

Sixtus V – 1590

Holy League

Treaty of Nemours 7 July.

Holy League 1585 Fall of Antwerp.
Catholic outrage at exec Mary
QoS ,18 Feb.
Philip enlists French help –
ports and supplies for Armada
Duke d de Guise  
,Cardinal de Bourbon murdered, Dec 23-24.
Spanish Armada defeated.by
Henry III and Navarre allies
Henry  assassinated 2 August..
1589 English invade.
1590 Army reorganised..

Maurice takes Breda.

1591 Peasant unrest Invades Hungary
Clement VIII – 1605 1592
War with Turkey -1606. Henry IV becomes Catholic.
again. 23 july.
1593 War with Turkey War with Austria
Assistance for war vs Turks
witheld by Protestant princes.
1594 Revolt in Wallachia,
Transylvania , Moldavia. Turks massacred.
Alliance with Netherlands and
1596 Sack of Cadiz Alliance with France and England
Clement claims estate of dec.
Duke of Ferrara
1597 Catholic ascendancy Austria.
Edict of Nantes.

Protestants  liberty of worship. End of religious

Philip III 1598-1621 1598 Philip cedes Netherlands to
Second Armada beaten back by
1600 Maurice takes Nieupoort
Treaty of Lyons gain Burgundian
1601 Maurice takes Sluys. Ostend
besieged by Austrians.
Edict of banishment on 
Protestants in Bohemia
1602 Dutch East India Co founded.
Peace with England. 1604 Spinola takes Ostend.
Catholic revival. Paul V – 1625; Venice
acknowledges superiority.
Catholic revival 1605
1606 Peace with Austria
1607 Defeat Spanish fleet at
Diet of Regensburg. Protestant
Union formed.
1608 Hague Congress
Catholic League under Duke of
Twelve Year Truce with
1609 Twelve Year Truce with Spain who
recognise Holland`s independence.
Henry IV assassinated. 1610 Internal religious and political
Savoy war with Spain War with Savoy 1613
Thirty Years War begins. 1618 National Synod at Dordrecht.
Gregory XV War with Holland. 1621 War with Spain